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Milestone Name: Congress of Vienna,

Congress of Vienna
Full name of milestone: Congress of Vienna
Type of milestone: War
Vienna Conference
Milestone year: 1815
Description: The Final Act, embodying all the separate treaties, was signed on 9 June 1815 (a few days before the Battle of Waterloo).[23] Its provisions included: Russia was given most of the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland) and was allowed to keep Finland (which it had annexed from Sweden in 1809 and held until 1917). Prussia was given two fifths of Saxony, parts of the Duchy of Warsaw (the Grand Duchy of Posen), Danzig, and the Rhineland/Westphalia. A German Confederation of 38 states was created from the previous 360 of the Holy Roman Empire, under the presidency of the Austrian Emperor. Only portions of the territory of Austria and Prussia were included in the Confederation. The Netherlands and the Southern Netherlands (approx. modern-day Belgium) were united in a constitutional monarchy, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the House of Orange-Nassau providing the king (the Eight Articles of London). To compensate for the Orange-Nassau's loss of the Nassau lands to Prussia, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were to form a personal union under the House of Orange-Nassau, with Luxembourg (but not the Netherlands) inside the German Confederation.[24] Swedish Pomerania, given to Denmark a year earlier in return for Norway, was ceded by Denmark to Prussia. France received back Guadeloupe from Sweden in return for yearly installments to the Swedish king. The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. Hanover gave up the Duchy of Lauenburg to Denmark, but was enlarged by the addition of former territories of the Bishop of M¨¹nster and by the formerly Prussian East Frisia, and made a kingdom. Most of the territorial gains of Bavaria, W¨¹rttemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Nassau under the mediatizations of 1801¨C1806 were recognized. Bavaria also gained control of the Rhenish Palatinate and parts of the Napoleonic Duchy of W¨¹rzburg and Grand Duchy of Frankfurt. Hesse-Darmstadt, in exchange for giving up the Duchy of Westphalia to Prussia, was granted the city. Austria regained control of the Tyrol and Salzburg; of the former Illyrian Provinces; of Tarnopol district (from Russia); received Lombardy-Venetia in Italy and Ragusa in Dalmatia. Former Austrian territory in Southwest Germany remained under the control of W¨¹rttemberg and Baden, and the Austrian Netherlands were also not recovered. Habsburg princes were returned to control of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena. The Papal States were under the rule of the pope and restored to their former extent, with the exception of Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin, which remained part of France. The United Kingdom was confirmed in control of the Cape Colony in Southern Africa; Tobago; Ceylon; and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. Other colonies, most notably the Dutch East Indies and Martinique, were restored to their previous owners. The King of Sardinia was restored in Piedmont, Nice, and Savoy, and was given control of Genoa (putting an end to the brief proclamation of a restored Republic). The Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were given to Marie Louise, Napoleon's wife. The Duchy of Lucca was created for the House of Bourbon-Parma, which would have reversionary rights to Parma after the death of Marie Louise. The Bourbon Ferdinand IV, King of Sicily was restored to control of the Kingdom of Naples after Joachim Murat, the king installed by Bonaparte, supported Napoleon in the Hundred Days and started the Neapolitan War by attacking Austria. The slave trade was condemned.
This conference happened after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic War. This also marks the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. It settled the borders of many countries and changed the geography of Europe for at least 100 years to come (until the end of World War I). The balance of power approach helped maintain peach in the continent for a long period of time. The German confederation was formed.
Webline: People related: NapoleonBonaparte
Country then: Vienna
Country now: Austria
Related Era: Napoleonic Wars

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Found following people by country name matching: Austria

Joseph Haydn Joseph Haydn 1732 1809
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Mozart 1756 1791
Clemens Matternich Clemens von Matternich 1821 1848
Johann Strauss II Johann Strauss 1825 1899

Found following era name by country matching: Austria

Found following event by country matching: Austria

Found following milestone by country matching: Austria

Congress of Vienna 1815 Vienna